Utilizing non-histological serological markers in the prediction of recurrence and metastasis in head and neck melanoma

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.31288/oftalmolzh202435663

Keywords:

melanoma, biomarkers, dermatoscopy, metastases, calcium-binding protein, melanoma inhibitory activity, hepatocyte growth factor, eosinophil cationic protein, serum indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase, vitamin D, lactate dehydrogenase

Abstract

There is a need for the development of additional prognostic melanoma (e.g., head and neck melanoma) biomarkers to stratify melanoma patients and reliably identify high-risk subgroups with the aim of providing effective personalized therapy.

Biomarkers play an important role in the diagnosis and prognostic classification of various types of cancer and may be indicators of biological or pathological processes or responses to exposure or intervention, providing a physician with the data helpful for future decision making with regard to patient management.

The advent of novel treatments and modalities for treating various stages of the disease with a notable objective response-to-survival ratio gave us good reason, in this review, to emphasize non-histological serological biomarkers for the correction and improvement in the efficacy of treatment as well as the prognosis of survival in patients with head and neck melanoma.

Author Biography

L. O. Kovtun, Odesa National Medical University, Odesa Regional Clinical Antitumor Center, Odesa, Ukraine

Cand Sc (Med), Department for Dermatology and Venerology, Odesa National Medical University, Odesa, Ukraine, Odesa Regional Clinical Antitumor Center, Odesa, Ukraine

References

Licata G, Scharf C, Ronchi A,PelleroneS, Argenziano G, VerolinoP,et al. Diagnosis and Management of Melanoma of the Scalp: A Review of the Literature. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2021;14:1435-47. https://doi.org/10.2147/CCID.S293115

Green AC, Baade P, Coory M,Aitken JF, Smithers M. Population-based 20-year survival among people diagnosed with thin melanomas in Queensland, Australia. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30:1462-67. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2011.38.8561

Joosse A, Collette S, Suciu S,Nijsten T, Lejeune F, Kleeberg UR, et al.Superior outcome of women with stage I/II cutaneous melanoma: pooled analysis of four European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer phase III trials. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30:2240-47. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2011.38.0584

Shaw JHF, Fay M. Management of head and neck melanoma. In: Morton R, editor. Treatment of metastatic melanoma. London: Intech Open; 2011. Chapter 3, p. 29-50. Available from: https://www.intechopen.com/chapters/21336 https://doi.org/10.5772/19876

Malignant Melanoma of the Eyelid. EyeWiki [Internet]. 2023 [cited 2024 May 29]. Available from: https://eyewiki.aao.org/Main_Page

Melanocytic tumour classification and the pathway concept of melanoma pathogenesis. In: WHO Classification of Skin Tumours. 4th ed. France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2018;66-71.

Garbe C, Amaral T, Peris K, et al. European consensus-based interdisciplinary guideline formelanoma. Part 1: diagnostics: update 2022. Eur J Cancer. 2022;170:236-255. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2022.03.008

Gachon J, Beaulieu P, Sei JF, Gouvernet J, Claudel JP, Lemaitre M,et al. First prospective study of the recognition process of melanoma in dermatological practice. Arch Dermatol. 2005;141:434-8. https://doi.org/10.1001/archderm.141.4.434

Chamberlain AJ, Fritschi L, Kelly JW. Nodular melanoma: patients' perceptions of presenting features and implications for earlier detection. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003;48:694-701. https://doi.org/10.1067/mjd.2003.216

Kittler H, Pehamberger H, Wolff K, Binder M. Diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopy. Lancet Oncol. 2002;3:159-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(02)00679-4

Howard MD, Wee E, Wolfe R, McLean CA, Kelly JW, Pan Y. Anatomic location of primary melanoma: survival differences and sun exposure. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2019;81(2):500-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2019.04.034

King R, Page RN, Googe PB, Mihm MC Jr. Lentiginous melanoma: a histologic pattern of melanoma to be distinguished from lentiginous nevus. Mod Pathol. 2005;18(10):1397-401. https://doi.org/10.1038/modpathol.3800454

Stolz W, Schiffner R, Burgdorf WH. Dermatoscopy for facial pigmented skin lesions. Clin Dermatol. 2002;20:276-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0738-081X(02)00221-3

Schiffner R, Schiffner-Rohe J, Vogt T, Landthaler M, Wlotzke U, Cognetta AB, et al.Improvement of early recognition of lentigo maligna using dermatoscopy. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;42:25-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0190-9622(00)90005-7

Pralong P, Bathelier E, Dalle S,Poulalhon N, Debarbieux S, Thomas L.Dermoscopy of lentigo maligna melanoma: report of 125 cases. Br J Dermatol. 2012;167:280-7. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2012.10932.x

Chen LL, Jaimes N, Barker CA, Busam KJ, Marghoob AA. Desmoplastic melanoma: a review. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013;68(5):825-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2012.10.041

Kittler H, Guitera P, Riedl E,Avramidis M, Teban L, Fiebiger M, et al. Identification of clinically featureless incipient melanoma using sequential dermoscopy imaging. Arch Dermatol. 2006;142:1113-9. https://doi.org/10.1001/archderm.142.9.1113

Menzies SW, Kreusch J, Byth K, Pizzichetta MA, Marghoob A, Braun R, et al.Dermoscopic evaluation of amelanotic and hypomelanotic melanoma. Arch Dermatol. 2008;144:1120-7. https://doi.org/10.1001/archderm.144.9.1120

Moloney FJ, Menzies SW. Key points in the dermoscopic diagnosis of hypomelanotic melanoma and nodular melanoma. JAMA Dermatol. 2011;38:10-15. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1346-8138.2010.01140.x

Pizzichetta MA, Stanganelli I, Bono R,Soyer HP, Magi S, Canzonieri V, et al.Dermoscopic features of difficult melanoma. Dermatol Surg. 2007;33:91-99. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4725.2007.33015.x

Blum A, Simionescu O, Argenziano G, Braun R, Cabo H, Eichhorn A, et al. Dermoscopy of pigmented lesions of the mucosa and the mucocutaneous junction: results of a multicenter study by the International Dermoscopy Society (IDS). Arch Dermatol. 2011;147:1181-7. https://doi.org/10.1001/archdermatol.2011.155

Morton DL, Wen DR, Wong JH, Economou JS, Cagle LA, Storm FK, et al.Technical details of intraoperative lymphatic mapping for early stage melanoma. Arch Surg. 1992;127:392-9. https://doi.org/10.1001/archsurg.1992.01420040034005

Morton DL, Thompson JF, Cochran AJ, Mozzillo N, Elashoff R, Essner R, et al.Sentinel-node biopsy or nodal observation in melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:1307-17. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa060992

Gershenwald JE, Scolyer RA. Melanoma staging: American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 8th edition and beyond. Ann Surg Oncol. 2018;25:2105-10. https://doi.org/10.1245/s10434-018-6513-7

Pennock GK, Waterfield W, Wolchok JD. Patient responses to ipilimumab, a novel immunopotentiator for metastatic melanoma: how different are these from conventional treatment responses? Am J Clin Oncol. 2012;35(6):606-611. https://doi.org/10.1097/COC.0b013e318209cda9

Ding L, Gosh A, Lee DJ,Emri G, Huss WJ, Bogner PN,et al. Prognostic biomarkers of cutaneous melanoma. J Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2022;38(5):418-434. https://doi.org/10.1111/phpp.12770

Zissimopoulos A, Karpouzis A, Karaitianos I, Baziotis N, Tselios I.Serum levels of S-100b protein after four years follow-up of patients with melanoma. Hell J Nucl Med. 2006;9:204-207.

Kruijff S, Hoekstra HJ. The current status of S-100B as a biomarker in melanoma. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2012;38:281-285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2011.12.005

Perkins GL, Slater ED, Sanders GK, Prichard JG. Serum tumor markers. Am Fam Physician. 2003;68(6):1075-82.

Hauschild A, Engel G, Brenner W, Gläser R, Mönig H, Henze E, Christophers E. S100B protein detection in serum is a significant prognostic factor in metastatic melanoma. Oncology. 1999;56(4):338-344. https://doi.org/10.1159/000011989

Tarhini AA, Stuckert J, Lee S, Sander C, Kirkwood JM. Prognostic significance of serum S100B protein in high-risk surgically resected melanoma patients participating in Intergroup Trial ECOG 1694. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(1):38-44. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2008.17.1777

Guo HB, Stoffel-Wagner B, Bierwirth T, Mezger J, Klingmüller D. Clinical significance of serum S100 in metastatic malignant melanoma. Eur J Cancer. 1995;31A:1898-1902. https://doi.org/10.1016/0959-8049(95)00087-Y

Krähn G, Kaskel P, Sander S, Waizenhöfer PJ, Wortmann S, Leiter U, Peter RU. S100 beta is a more reliable tumor marker in peripheral blood for patients with newly occurred melanoma metastases compared with MIA, albumin and lactate-dehydrogenase. Anticancer Res. 2001;21(2B):1311-16.

Trotter SC, Sroa N, Winkelmann RR, Olencki T, Bechtel M.A global review of melanoma follow-up guidelines. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2013;6(9):18-26.

Tarhini AA, Stuckert J, Lee S, Sander C, Kirkwood JM. Prognostic significance of serum S100B protein in high-risk surgically resected melanoma patients participating in Intergroup Trial ECOG 1694. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(1):38-44. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2008.17.1777

Stahlecker J, Gauger A, Bosserhoff A, Büttner R, Ring J, Hein R. MIA as a reliable tumor marker in the serum of patients with malignant melanoma. Anticancer Res. 2000;20(6D):5041-44.

Sandru A, Panaitescu E, Voinea S, Bolovan M, Stanciu A, Cinca S, et al. Prognostic value of melanoma inhibitory activity protein in localized cutaneous malignant melanoma. J Skin Cancer Cancer [Internet]. 2014 Jun [cited 2024 Apr 30];2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/843214 Available from: https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jsc/2014/843214/

Bosserhoff AK, Dreau D, Hein R, Landthaler M, Holder WD, Buettner R. Melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA), a serological marker of malignant melanoma. Recent Results Cancer Res. 2001;158:158-168. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-59537-0_16

Max N, Keilholz U. Minimal residual disease in melanoma. Semin Surg Oncol. 2001;20(4):319-328. https://doi.org/10.1002/ssu.1050

Kan M., Zhang G., Zarnegar R., Michalopoulos G., Myoken Y., McKeehan W.L., Stevens J.L. Hepatocyte growth factor/hepatopoietin A stimulates the growth of rat kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTE), rat nonparenchymal liver cells, human melanoma cells, mouse keratinocytes and stimulates anchorage-independent growth of SV-40 transformed RPTE. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1991;174:331-337. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-291X(91)90524-B

Halaban R., Rubin J.S., Funasaka Y., Cobb M., Boulton T., Faletto D., Rosen E., Chan A., Yoko K., White W., et al. Met and hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor signal transduction in normal melanocytes and melanoma cells. Oncogene. 1992;7:2195-2206.

Matsumoto K, Nakamura T. Hepatocyte growth factor and the Met system as a mediator of tumor-stromal interactions. Int J Cancer. 2006;119:477-483. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.21808

Bradbury J. A two-pronged approach to the clinical use of HGF. Lancet. 1998;351:272. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)78259-3

Hugel R, Muendlein A, Volbeding L,Drexel H, Richtig E, Wehkamp U, et al. Serum levels of hepatocyte growth factor as a potential tumor marker in patients with malignant melanoma. Melanoma Res. 2016;6(4):354-360. https://doi.org/10.1097/CMR.0000000000000269

Kruckel A, Moreira A, Frohlich W, Schuler G, Heinzerling L. Eosinophil-cationic protein - a novel liquid prognostic biomarker in melanoma. BMC Cancer. 2019;19(1):207. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-019-5384-z

Moreira A, Leisgang W, Schuler G, Heinzerling L. Eosinophilic count as a biomarker for prognosis of melanoma patients and its importance in the response to immunotherapy. Immunotherapy. 2017;9(2):115-121. https://doi.org/10.2217/imt-2016-0138

Routy JP, Routy B, Graziani GM, Mehraj V. The kynurenine pathway is a double-edged sword in immune-privileged sites and in cancer: implications for immunotherapy. Int J Tryptophan Res. 2016;9:67-77. https://doi.org/10.4137/IJTR.S38355

Munn DH, Mellor AL. Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase and metabolic control of immune responses. Trends Immunol. 2013;34(3):137-143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.it.2012.10.001

Solvay M, Holfelder P, Klaessens S, Pilotte L, Stroobant V, Lamy J, et al. Tryptophan depletion sensitizes the AHR pathway by increasing AHR expression and GCN2/LAT1-mediated kynurenine uptake, and potentiates induction of regulatory T lymphocytes. J Immunother Cancer [Internet]. 2023Jun [cited 2024 Apr 30];11(6). https://doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2023-006728

Available from:https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/37344101/

Minhas PS, Liu L, Moon PK,, Joshi AU, Dove C, Mhatre S, et al. Macrophage de novo NAD(+) synthesis specifies immune function in aging and inflammation. Nat Immunol. 2019;20(1):50-63. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-018-0255-3

Munn DH, Sharma MD, Baban B,Harding HP, Zhang Y, Ron D, et al. GCN2 kinase in T cells mediates proliferative arrest and anergy induction in response to indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Immunity. 2005;22(5):633-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2005.03.013

Rubel F, Kern JS, Technau-Hafsi K,Uhrich S, Thoma K, Häcker G,et al. Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Expression in Primary Cutaneous Melanoma Correlates with Breslow Thickness and Is of Significant Prognostic Value for Progression-Free Survival. J Invest Dermatol. 2018;138(3):679-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jid.2017.09.036

Rose C. Diagnostics of malignant melanoma of the skin: Recommendations of the current S3 guidelines on histology and molecular pathology. Pathologe. 2017;38:49-61. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00292-016-0260-y

Bikle DD. Vitamin D: An ancient hormone. Exp Dermatol. 2011;20(1):7-13. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0625.2010.01202.x

Tuckey RC, Cheng CYS, Slominski AT. The serum vitamin D metabolome: What we know and what is still to discover. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2019;186:4-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2018.09.003

Lombardo M, Vigezzi A, Ietto G,Franchi C, Iori V, Masci F, et al. Role of vitamin D serum levels in prevention of primary and recurrent melanoma. Sci Rep [Internet]. 2021March [cited 2024 Apr 30];11(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85294-3 Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-85294-3

Cattaruzza MS, Pisani D, Fidanza L,Gandini S, Marmo G, Narcisi A, et al. 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels and melanoma risk: A case-control study and evidence synthesis of clinical epidemiological studies. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2019;28(3):203-11. https://doi.org/10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000437

Newton-Bishop JA, Davies JR, Latheef F,Randerson-Moor J, Chan M, Gascoyne J, et al. 25-hydroxyvitamin D2/D3 levels and factors associated with systemic inflammation and melanoma survival in the Leeds melanoma cohort. Int J Cancer. 2015;136(12):2890-99. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.29334

Wyatt C, Lucas RM, Hurst CKimlin MG. Vitamin D deficiency at melanoma diagnosis is associated with higher Breslow thickness. PLoS One [Internet]. 2015 May [cited 2024 Apr 30];10(5). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126394 Available from:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4430535/

Bade B, Zdebik A, Wagenpfeil S,Graber S, Geisel J, Vogt T,et al. Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with increased risk for melanoma and unfavorable prognosis. PLoS One [Internet]. 2014 Dec [cited 2024 Apr 30];9(12). Available from:https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0112863 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112863

Lim A, Shayan R, Varigos G. High serum vitamin D level correlates with better prognostic indicators in primary melanoma: A pilot study. Australas J Dermatol. 2018;59(3):182-7. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajd.12648

Saiag P, Aegerter P, Vitoux D,Lebbe C, Wolkenstein P, Dupin N, et al. Prognostic value of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels at diagnosis and during follow-up in melanoma patients. J Natl Cancer Inst [Internet]. 2015Sep [cited 2024 Apr 30];107(12). Available from: https://academic.oup.com/jnci/article/107/12/djv264/2457724?login=false https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djv264

Lipplaa A, Fernandes R, Marshall A,Lorigan P, Dunn J, Myers KA, et al. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D serum levels in patients with high risk resected melanoma treated in an adjuvant bevacizumab trial. Br J Cancer. 2018;119(7):793-800. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41416-018-0179-6

Balch CM, Gershenwald JE, Soong SJ,Thompson JF, Atkins MB, Byrd DR, et al. Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:6199-6206. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2009.23.4799

Vereecken P, Cornelis F, Van Baren N, Vandersleyen V, Baurain JF. A synopsis of serum biomarkers in cutaneous melanoma patients. Dermatol Res Pract Inst [Internet]. 2012Jan [cited 2024 Apr 30];2012. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/260643 Available from:https://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2012/260643/

Alegre E, Sammamed M, Fernandez-Landazuri S, Zubiri L, Gonzalez A. Advances in clinical chemistry. 2015;69:47-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.acc.2014.12.002

Petrelli F, Cabiddu M, Coinu A,Borgonovo K, Ghilardi M, Lonati V, et al. Prognostic role of lactate dehydrogenase in solid tumors: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 76 studies. Acta Oncol. 2015;54:961-970. https://doi.org/10.3109/0284186X.2015.1043026

Kelderman S, Heemskerk B, van Tinteren H,van den Brom RR, Hospers GA, van den Eertwegh AJ, et al. Lactate dehydrogenase as a selection criterion for ipilimumab treatment in metastatic melanoma. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2014;63:449-58. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00262-014-1528-9

Martens A, Wistuba-Hamprecht K, Geukes Foppen M,Yuan J, Postow MA, Wong P, et al. Baseline peripheral blood biomarkers associated with clinical outcome of advanced melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab. Clin Cancer Res. 2016;22:2908-18. https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-2412

Diem S, Kasenda B, Spain L, Martin-Liberal J,Marconcini R, Gore M, et al. Serum lactate dehydrogenase as an early marker for outcome in patients treated with anti-PD-1 therapy in metastatic melanoma. Br J Cancer. 2016;114:256-61.

https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2015.467

Published

2024-07-02

How to Cite

1.
Kovtun LO. Utilizing non-histological serological markers in the prediction of recurrence and metastasis in head and neck melanoma . J.ophthalmol. (Ukraine) [Internet]. 2024 Jul. 2 [cited 2024 Jul. 18];(3):56-63. Available from: https://ua.ozhurnal.com/index.php/files/article/view/115